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I continue the topic about personnel errors in terms of simulators (simulators) for training specialists. Since many training specialists still do not see a significant difference between tests and simulators, I will try to show, so to speak, the "depths" of this problem.
Let's start, the classification of errors depending on its “position” in the process of personnel activity is also widely represented in many models of the “personnel activity process”. As a rule, such models also strongly depend on the scope, i.e. industry.
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Human operator in a feedback system
Next, one of the most modern universal models based on and shown in the figure will be considered. The choice of this model is due to the “finest” division of cognitive and physical actions. This model does not contradict other models, and is, as it were, a generalization of them.
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An example of the process of staff activities (behavior model)

A mistake due to the “human factor” actually means a mistake at one or several stages of the personnel activity process. Therefore, to reduce the likelihood of risk caused by the human factor, it is necessary to reduce the number of errors at each of the presented stages. Under the stages is understood the sequence in the labor process, as part of the production process - a combination of the actual labor activity and related mechanical, physico-chemical and other processes occurring under the supervision of a specialist. The labor process, in turn, is divided into operations, techniques, actions, labor movements.

Take a closer look at discovery, diagnosis, and decision making.

Discovery


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Knowledge, skills and detection skills are directly related to a separate category of errors - perception errors (including attention errors). This type of error usually differs by:
  • Perception errors - could not be detected, could not distinguish, did not recognize, misinterpreted (subject to knowledge of the signs of a dangerous situation, permissible deviations, etc.);
  • Attention - could not concentrate, gather, switch, hold, did not have time to cover everything, quickly tired;
  • Lack of knowledge and/or experience regarding signs of a dangerous situation, tolerances, periods of inspection and control, etc.


Currently, there are statistics that demonstrate various types of human detection errors for various areas, for example:
  • Kotik M.A., Emelyanov A.M. - The nature of human operator errors on examples of driving vehicles.
  • Paul Fitts Engineering Psychology and Machine Design In a book: Experimental Psychology (S. Stevens, eds.), vol. 2, p. 943.
  • Strelkov Yu. K. Engineering and professional psychology. M.: Academy, 2005.


If we single out errors related to perception and attention from these statistics, we can cite the following data from numerous studies that require more careful study as part of the formation of the necessary knowledge, skills and detection skills using simulators. (because it affects the requirements for simulators)

Table. Classification of 270 errors made by pilots in response to signals and instrument readings. [from the book Strelkov Yu.K.Engineering and Professional Psychology]
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Formation of knowledge of detection (control)



To form knowledge of discovery, the student must remember:
  • which measuring instruments should be “tracked”, how to read readings correctly, how often or at what frequency should changes in readings be checked;
  • existing hazardous areas and possible sources of danger associated with the presence of personnel or foreign objects in the hazardous area, smoke, etc.;
  • characteristic places on equipment that require attention and regular visual inspection;
  • characteristic changes in the sound of the equipment or vibration (tactile sensations);
  • location of alarm devices;
  • other equipment and processes requiring increased supervision and attention


In other words, the formation of detection knowledge involves storing the following information: what should control, how and how often. For example, for the generator it is necessary to detect the following symptoms: Excessive heating of the bearings - observation (reading of readings) of the thermometer; Lubricant leakage from bearing chambers - visual inspection; Vibration of the machine during operation - kinetic sensations and sound vibrations; The rhythmic hum in the car - sound vibrations; The generator windings overheat above the permissible norm - observation (reading of indications) of a thermometer, etc.

“Group training” is possible when each member of the group is only responsible for their “sites”, but must control the other members of the group.
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The effectiveness of knowledge discovery generation depends on:
  • on the quality of the demonstration of measuring instruments, the testimony of which can be used to judge whether there are signs of an emergency or an undesirable situation (in the diagnostic process).
  • on the quality of the demonstration of hazardous areas, which is necessary for further monitoring the presence of personnel, foreign objects or other signs of opvnosti in these areas (during diagnosis)
  • on the quality of demonstration of “places” on equipment requiring attention and regular inspection
  • on the quality of the demonstration of the characteristic changes in the environment (sound, vibration, smoke, sparks, etc.);
  • from the possibility of implementing "group training" (interaction and mutual control) if necessary.


Evaluation of the effectiveness of the formation of detection knowledge can be made using testing, by comparing the detected changes with the total number of changes presented. For example, when a pressure change is detected, the learner presses a key, if the key has not been pressed, it is believed that the learner did not notice this change.

Conclusion: Simulators are able to effectively generate the necessary knowledge, because:
  1. They can reproduce almost all the signs of an accident (except temperature, humidity, etc.) or potentially dangerous situations, and the demonstration of all the signs of an accident on a specific real equipment can be very difficult, and the actual reproduction of potentially dangerous situations is extremely dangerous.
  2. Due to the use of all channels of perception, the percentage of memorization of information will be higher than traditional methods of forming knowledge (posters, videos).


Formation of detection skills (control)



The student must be able to apply the acquired (or existing) knowledge of detection in practical activities (when solving specific problems). Without the formation of detection skills, the student, being in a real situation, will spend too much time and effort on detection, and will also be forced to be temporarily distracted from the work performed. In other words, the constant concentration of mental efforts on the detection process can interfere with other processes, and can also cause fatigue, decreased attention, etc.

The formation of skills and detection is directly related to attention. In cognitive science, attention is understood as a control mechanism of action (internal control), and its formation is determined by education and training. In the work [Boris Mitrofanovich Velichkovsky.COGNITIVE SCIENCE The basics of the psychology of cognition Volume 1, 304 p.] Based on many studies, it is indicated - “The formation of cognitive skills especially greatly increases the success of work in conditions of distraction. These results allow us to hope to overcome many seemingly fixed limitations of cognitive processes with properly constructed education and training. ”

The formation of learning skills in a learner means the learner’s ability to detect in practice without a long distraction from the main process (short switching between actions). A simple example of the formation of a skill is learning to read the text “by syllables” or “by words” (and not “by letters”).

As with the formation of detection knowledge, “group preparation” is possible, when each member of the group is only responsible for their “sites”, but must control the other members of the group.

The formation of detection skills is achieved by a simple repetition of the detection actions, together with the implementation of the necessary work (working algorithms). A prerequisite is a long individual or group training, when each member of the group is responsible for their “areas”.

Particular attention should be paid to the following factors (based on their classification of errors [from the book Strelkov YK Engineering and Professional Psychology]):
  1. If there are devices whose arrow makes several revolutions, it is necessary to separately monitor the speed and accuracy of reading the readings of these devices.
  2. The accuracy and speed of interpretation of instruments showing the rate of change of magnitude — changes rapidly or slowly — and the direction of change increases or decreases.
  3. Accuracy and speed of interpretation of non-standardized signals (hand signals for example), and signals that depend on conditions (for example, signal lights in fog, sounds against a background of interference, etc.).
  4. The accuracy and speed of interpretation of the distinction between numbers, scale divisions or arrows.
  5. The number of “not addressed addresses”, that is, devices that do not have the required information.
  6. Signs of a malfunctioning or malfunctioning device.
  7. Cases of not taking readings at the right time.


The effectiveness of the formation of detection skills: see the effectiveness of the formation of knowledge discovery.

The assessment of the effectiveness of the formation of detection skills can be performed similarly to testing the knowledge of detection, with the difference that the student does the necessary work on the simulator (working algorithm) and not only the fact of “remarking” of the changes is estimated, but also the time elapsed between the change (for example, pressure on pressure gauge) and the reaction of the learner. If the elapsed time is greater than a certain value, the result of the “remark” is not counted (it is believed that the change was detected with a significant delay).

Thus, it is possible to conclude that imitators are able to effectively form the necessary skills, because they are able to provide all the necessary conditions for this (they also have higher efficiency than posters and films). The possibility of a long “individual” skill training also increases the effectiveness of simulators.

Formation of detection skills (control, reaction)


With the further development of attention with the help of training and training, automation of actions arises and the process of coordination of “detection” ceases to be determined by only conscious control - the formation of skills begins. To study the mechanism of formation of skills, it is necessary to turn to the results of studies of physiological processes of perception, which are currently sufficiently studied.

The process of perceiving information begins with the physiological adjustment of the perception system to the object of observation (the level of unconditioned reflexes) and ends with the stage of conscious selection and processing of information at the level of thinking. The available data from the field of physiology of sensory systems and psychological studies of perception issues indicate that a person perceives information primarily using his dominant analyzers (vision, hearing and kinesthetic sensations). Vision is the dominant analyzer, but in the process of perception (by the brain) of the visual image, not only vision but also other sensory organs are involved.As a rule, the time or duration of the reaction is understood as the total duration (overall response time). What we feel is only 20% dependent on the work of the dominant analyzers, and 80% is determined by the ability of the central nervous system to process the information received.

Dynamic capabilities of the visual system (improvement). As a rule, only static vision is controlled, however, in a rapidly changing situation, staff largely depends on the dynamic capabilities of the visual system.

Testing and training the dynamic capabilities of the visual system is important for two main reasons:
1. Human vision is not able to perceive continuously and equally clearly across the entire field of vision. For a clear perception as a whole, a person must quickly fix his gaze in several important places.
2. We see the whole picture with a time delay of 0.15-0.2 seconds, in connection with which, it is necessary to master the algorithms for maintaining the gaze and establish links between visual perception and muscle reactions to form subconscious anticipatory actions.


The recognition process can be arbitrarily divided into separate stages, following each other. A certain time is spent first for folding the received information into a single frame, and then for its subsequent analysis and interpretation. In the first 0.04 seconds after fixing the gaze, a person does not see anything (the brain adds up a single frame), in the observation interval from 0.04 to 0.06 seconds, contours (fragments of the form) begin to be fixed, from 0.06 to 0.16 coloring of the image, and from 0.16 to 0.2-0.3 seconds, an integral image is formed, or another fragment of a panoramic view, if the observed picture is a continuation of what was seen earlier. In the range from 0.16 to 0.2-0.3 seconds. the comparison with the images stored in the memory ends and the maximum possible interpretation of what is seen occurs.

The brain processes the "raw" information that is received from the retina and is divided into separate parts automatically so that we hardly notice it. In addition, the picture built by the brain looks much more complete if our eyes are in motion when the gaze scans the space (the central part of the gaze at this moment collects details about hotel objects). This is exactly what the staff should look at, sequentially scanning the “working” space. Casting short glances around the sides to the places of installation of devices, the location of personnel and to assess the situation at the workplace as a whole. It is unacceptable to constantly look in one direction without moving your eyes (this is a very common mistake made by staff).

As a rule, the development of the ability to correctly look is compulsorily developed during the training of flight personnel, driver-athletes, etc.

When the movement of a moving object is tracked, first the eyes should catch it in focus, then the human brain calculates how far the object is from us and how fast it moves, its trajectory is predicted, after which a quick look is made to a new point that has been predicted in advance. This process takes about 0.15 seconds. At the moment of a look translation, perception is lost, and for a moment a person “goes blind”, as if by blinking. If between the predictions of the visual system, for some reason, the object substantially changes the trajectory, then the forecasts for maintaining the gaze turn out to be erroneous, and the visual system is forced to spend additional time restoring perception (the object is again caught in focus, its new trajectory is calculated).

Available research data on perceptual issues lead to unequivocal conclusions:
  • The perception of visual information is a mastered process, and is not given to us completely from birth. It is formed and improved in the process of accumulating life experience and certain trainings.
  • People who have not mastered the correct algorithms for perceiving a rapidly changing environment, see much less detail, regardless of the visual acuity that they check with an optometrist.
  • People who have mastered the correct gaze algorithm notice more features and details of the environment.
  • If the situation changes rapidly, many moments are overlooked, and panoramic “shots” are not completely accurate in consciousness.Trained people, as a rule, take precisely those “photographs”, according to which the most accurate forecast is possible, for beginners important places are lost between frames, nor any enhanced brain work can no longer in this case restore the lost.
  • The recognition time of objects depends on our previous experience stored in memory, and may be reduced.
  • Training, influencing exclusively on sensory processes, reduces reaction time by 40-70%
  • Travis (1948) investigated the effectiveness of the influence of training exercises on the duration of the recognition reaction. He concluded that training almost exclusively affects sensory processes, shortening {119} reaction time by 40%.
  • Heratevol, thanks to the training, found that the reaction time is reduced to 70%.


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Picture. Sequential illumination of indicators in the simulator for working out the algorithm for correct gaze management

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Errors of perception and distortion of information
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In most cases, the interpretation of information from dominant analyzers is correct, but sometimes perception errors occur. The most famous illusions are associated with vision, there are errors in the perception of tactile sensations, sound, etc. Visual illusions and phenomena [http://www.psy.msu.ru/illusion/]:
  • Illusions of perception of depth
  • Visual distortion
  • Illusions of perception of size
  • Illusions of color and contrast
  • Aftereffect
  • Illusions of movement (for example, visual illusions, when it seems that your car is starting to move backward, at a time when a nearby machine is slowly moving away)
  • The effect of perceptual readiness, etc.

Other limitations of the visual system (In low light, high light, exposure changes).

The interconnectedness and conflict of different sensory channels that arise in this case sometimes have a negative effect - brain fatigue, etc.). With the help of imitators, it is possible to reproduce most of the illusions and distortions, which means that it is possible to develop (form) the necessary mechanisms for recognition of such cases and a more attentive attitude towards them.

Moving from the visual system to hearing and tactile sensations, we can separately distinguish:
  • Tactile perception;
  • Sensitivity to vibrations;
  • Transmission of sensations through tissues;
  • Hearing Perception, etc.


The figure shows the information received by the pilot during piloting.

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Formation of detection skills

is achieved by repeating the actions of detection, together with the implementation of the necessary work (working algorithms). A prerequisite is a long individual or group training, when each member of the group is responsible for their “areas”. The main difference from the formation of skills is precisely the development and application of the correct mechanisms of the perception process (for example, the trajectory of the eye when reading a number of indicators on the panel) and the automation of the actions performed upon detection.
The effectiveness of the formation of detection skills: see the effectiveness of the formation of knowledge and skills of detection. In addition, it is possible to obtain information using the motion capture system (including the movement of the pupil) and assess the correctness of the learner’s actions.
Evaluation of the effectiveness of the formation of detection skills can be performed similarly to testing detection skills.

Thus, it is possible to conclude that imitators are able to effectively form the necessary skills becauseable to provide all the necessary conditions for this (also have higher efficiency than posters and films), in addition, they provide significant advantages, such as demonstration of full-blown accidents, training when exposed to external distractions (rain, wind), etc.

The accuracy of diagnostics depends on how efficiently the detection is carried out (without effective training in detection, personnel may not notice the danger or notice it too late).

Diagnostics


In the diagnostic process, decisions are made on the admissibility of detected deviations of the parameters from the norm (expected) or their inadmissibility, followed by the transition to the decision-making stage to solve or compensate for a possible problem.

Accordingly, the following main errors are possible during diagnosis:
skipping a malfunction or dangerous situation;
“False alarm.”

In a difficult driving situation, the driver often does not have enough time and opportunity to immediately fully appreciate all its sides. He usually judges such a situation by the main most striking signs. Faced with a difficult road task, the driver can, without delving into its features, begin to solve it in the usual way and worked out earlier in practice. And some unaccounted for essential feature of this task may just make such a standard method in this case unsuitable. Then it turns out that the repeatedly tested method of solution turns out to be clearly erroneous in this case. Such stereotypical thinking is most often manifested in extreme situations, when a person is worried about danger and there is little time to think. Therefore, once again I want to draw the attention of drivers to the fact that the most important element in solving any road problem is to assess the current situation, and that the success of its solution depends mainly on the completeness of such an assessment.


Building Diagnostic Knowledge
The formation of diagnostic knowledge is achieved by remembering all direct and indirect signs of malfunctions (or threats), any external manifestations of malfunctions (or threats), failure criteria and maximum permissible values ​​or conditions, for example:
  • Over or under pressure (temperature, supply, current) above the maximum permissible values;
  • Grease leak, vibration, hum, whistle, uncharacteristic sounds;
  • Smoke, sparks;
  • Signs of sound, light alarm;
  • Signs of tripping of safety valves.
  • Signs of damage or wear to the rope, bearings, valves, etc.
  • Signs of threat (presence of personnel in a danger zone, etc.), etc.


The effectiveness of the formation of diagnostic knowledge depends on the quality of reproduction (demonstration) of the primary and secondary signs of the accident or signs of a dangerous situation. In this case, quality should be understood as the difference in the perception of signs of an accident (similarity) in the learning process and in the real situation. It also depends on the possibility of implementing “group training” if necessary.

Evaluation of the effectiveness of the formation of diagnostic knowledge can be made by testing, by comparing the detected symptoms of malfunctions with the total number of malfunctions that have occurred. For example, when diagnosing a change in pressure above the maximum allowable value, the student presses the key, if the button has not been pressed, it is believed that the learner did not notice or did not consider it important as important (skipping a malfunction or dangerous situation). If a key was pressed and there was no malfunction or dangerous situation (all indications are normal), the “false alarm” error is recorded.

Conclusion:
Simulators can be successfully used both for the formation of diagnostic knowledge (by demonstrating external manifestations and signs using all channels of perception), and for checking the correctness of the diagnosis and its correction. The capabilities of imitators to “look inside an object” and other features can significantly help in understanding the information. Thus, simulators allow you to achieve the maximum level of information storage.

Formation of diagnostic skills


By analogy with the formation of detection skills, the student should be able to apply the acquired (or existing) diagnostic knowledge in practical activities (when solving specific problems).As in the case of detection skills, without the formation of diagnostic skills, the student, being in a real situation, will spend too much time and effort on quick diagnostics, and will also be forced to temporarily be distracted from the work performed (fatigue, loss of attention and other effects are also possible).
The formation of diagnostic skills in a student means the student’s ability to diagnose in practice without a long distraction from the main process. As in the case of detection, the repetition of the diagnostic process (training) over time leads to the fact that, at first, the new action is performed at a high level and is fully recognized, then it splits into a series of operations that are gradually automated, finding lower ones for themselves, background levels. Proceeding from this, for the formation of skills, a long individual training and development of the actions of the diagnostic actions is necessary, necessarily together with the training of detection skills. The formation of diagnostic skills is achieved by simply repeating the diagnostic steps (along with detection), together with the necessary work (working algorithms). A prerequisite is a long individual or group training, when each member of the group is responsible for their “areas”.
The effectiveness of the formation of diagnostic skills: see the effectiveness of the formation of diagnostic knowledge.
The effectiveness of the formation of detection skills can be assessed in the same way as testing diagnostic knowledge, with the difference that the student does the necessary work (working algorithm) on the simulator and not only the fact of confirming the presence of malfunctions or dangers is evaluated, but also the time spent by the student on this process. If the elapsed time is greater than a certain value, the result is not counted (it is believed that the malfunction or danger was not diagnosed or there was a significant delay).

As a rule, the following stages of the diagnostic process are distinguished:
  • conducting a situation analysis;
  • identification of all existing problems or potential threats, their ranking and selection of the problems that pose the greatest potential danger;
  • if there are signs of potential danger, an assessment of the likely development of events is necessary, determination of possible undesirable consequences.
  • determination of the reason why undesirable consequences occur or may occur;


Accordingly, the following basic errors are possible:
  • erroneous determination of possible consequences;
  • erroneous determination of the causes.


Thus, it is possible to conclude that imitators are able to effectively form the necessary diagnostic skills. able to provide all the necessary conditions for this:
  • Implementation of all possible failures, accidents or incidents, together with the implementation of the necessary work (algorithm);
  • Identification of errors and their correction;
  • Possibility of long individual or group training and other benefits.


Formation of diagnostic skills


With the further development of diagnostic skills with the help of long individual or group training, automation of actions occurs and the process of diagnosis is no longer determined by conscious control alone - the formation of diagnostic skills begins. The formation of diagnostic skills reduces fatigue during work, distraction, and, accordingly, provides a greater concentration of attention on the process, a high reaction rate, etc.

The formation of diagnostic skills is achieved by repeating the steps to detect and diagnose, together with the implementation of the necessary work (working algorithms). A prerequisite is a long individual or group training, when each member of the group is responsible for their “areas”.
The effectiveness of the formation of diagnostic skills: see the effectiveness of the formation of diagnostic knowledge.
Evaluation of the effectiveness of the formation of diagnostic skills can be performed similarly to testing diagnostic skills.

Thus, it is possible to conclude that imitators are able to effectively form the necessary skills becauseable to provide all the necessary conditions for this (also have higher efficiency than posters and films), in addition, they provide significant advantages, such as demonstrating full-blown accidents, training when exposed to external distractions (rain, wind), etc.

The correctness of the decision depends on how efficiently the diagnosis is made.

Decision Making


In the meantime, as statistics show, about 90% of traffic accidents occur due to errors in forecasts and decision making. It is necessary to specifically focus on overtaking; about a fourth of the dorrzhny incidents are associated with them. When overtaking, the correct estimates and forecasts are especially important. Here, the driver has to take into account many factors: the speed of the car being overtaken and going towards, the removal of the oncoming car, and how the driver of the car that he overtakes will behave. The error in such forecasts is very dangerous, since overtaking is performed at increased speed. Naturally, with such a maneuver, the driver has high mental tension. It was experimentally established that during overtaking there is a significant shift in the psychophysiological parameters of the driver and here their values ​​are 25-40% higher than usual.


Properties and qualities of thinking:
  • Independence - the ability to see a new problem, raise a new question, try to solve the problem on your own.
  • Depth - the degree of penetration into the essence of the phenomenon.
  • Latitude - the ability to control a large number of connections between objects, objects, phenomena when solving a problem.
  • Flexibility - the ability to find various ways to solve problems, as well as change the intended plan of action if it does not meet the conditions that are found in the course of solving the problem.
  • Criticality - the ability to correctly assess the objective conditions and one’s own activity, if necessary, abandon the chosen solution, find a new way of acting.
  • Speed ​​is the ability to quickly find the right, informed decision.


A mechanism for generating and testing hypotheses, when all new signs of a situation are used to refute or confirm assumptions about the cause of an event

at the same time, it may turn to search for an appropriate rule for implementing the solution (for example, if the pump shuts down, then unlock and restart the pump)
or turn on the backup pump

this is possible only with the involvement of fundamental knowledge about the structure of the process by setting and achieving several intermediate goals. i.e., it consists in choosing the sequence of necessary intermediate steps

Heavily dependent on experience. In fact, you need to remember the entire table of possible malfunctions (or threats) and how to eliminate them, for example:

The name of the malfunction (or threat), the external manifestation and additional signs (criteria of failures and limit states) - Pressure drop and productivity, vibration, noise [signs of the beginning of cavitation]

Probable Cause
  • increased pump flow above nominal or increased shaft speed
  • Increased resistance in the suction line (suction throttling, clogged filters, etc.);
  • pressure reduction at the inlet to the pump for technological reasons (lowering the level in the supply unit);
  • increasing the temperature of the pumped product or increasing the content of dissolved gases


Possible unwanted consequences - Destruction of the pump's working parts due to cavitation

Actions upon detection - a) check... b) inform... c) perform...

Sequence:
  • Statement of the problem.
  • Statement of limitations and decision criteria.
  • Identification of alternatives.
  • Assess alternatives.
  • Choosing an alternative.
  • Implementation of the solution.
  • Control over the execution of the decision.
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