In the age of high technology and artificial intelligence, the programmer is one of the most sought-after professions. But which profile to choose for a successful start? To argue which language is better is pointless. Each has its own characteristics, scope and solves its problems. Let us designate the top 5 from the point of view of the prospect of studying languages ​​in Russia.


Indexes/Popularity Ratings

Now in the world several hundred programming languages ​​are known, 3-4 dozens are widely used. There are several authoritative international ratings (indices) reflecting the dynamics of the demand for languages, interest in them:

  • PYPL - popularity rating according to Google;
  • TIOBE - an index based on data from search engines Bing, Google, Yahoo;
  • Stack Overflow - rating based on the number of questions by language;
  • GitHub reflects the use of programming languages ​​in repositories (repositories);
  • IEEE Spectrum - a comprehensive rating that takes into account 11 parameters from 8 sources, including Google, Twitter, GitHub, Stack Overflow, Career Builder, Reddit, IEEE Job Site.

Here's what the top five PYPL ratings for 2019 look like:


Of course, interest in the language, the exchange of information, the creation of communities and databases are significant indicators. They are a mirror of the actual activity of professional groups.

Features of national programming

Doesn’t it turn out that when studying international ratings, we measure the average temperature in a hospital? In other words: the world is big, each country has its own characteristics and traditions of development, its own demand for programmers. It is important for you and me to figure out what the situation is here and now. What kind of work is offered, what skills are in the trend, how much do specialists earn? The prospects for the near future are also interesting.

You can now learn any popular programming language. There are many formats: online courses, business schools, colleges, universities. Plus lessons, master classes, webinars... Continuing education is a feature of the profession. The programming area is dynamic, tools and technologies are changing all the time. And the competition is quite fierce.

Let's see the vacancies and salaries at the largest domestic employment portal - HeadHunter. What does the top five programming languages ​​look like in demand?

5th place: C #


An object-oriented language on the.NET platform, developed by Microsoft. Used for software development: programs for business, web services, mobile applications, games.

Prospects for the development of C # are associated with the expansion of the platform’s functionality and the transition from Windows-oriented.NET Framework to the cross-platform.NET.Core. Now the language is interesting not only for Windows developers, but also for specialists in Linux, Mac OS, Android, iOS.

C # is considered relatively easy to learn, understandable and suitable for beginners. In syntax, it is similar to Java and C++. The initial course of study (usually in the online format) lasts from 1 to 6 months.

Demand for C # programmers is consistently high, the language is being used more and more. The programmer’s salary starts at 70,000 rubles, an average of 100,000 rubles per month.

4th place: Python


Script universal language.It has a very wide scope: applications for robots, drones, applications for PC and mobile devices, web development and analytics. Python is the leader in many popularity ratings (including PYPL, IEEE Spectrum). In Russia, it is not as popular as it is abroad.

The language is gaining momentum due to its performance, ease of development, accessibility on different operating systems and the large volume of available developments. It is increasingly included in the curriculum of specialized educational institutions. Powerful support for the development of the language is provided by the Python Software Foundation.

The syntax is rather unusual, but very rational, not complicated by bulky constructions.

The demand for language today and in the foreseeable future is beyond doubt. It may not be a demand leader, but there is enough work for Python programmers. The wage level is very attractive: from 85,000 rubles a month and above. You can get a job in the West (USA, Europe) or in Asia, where there are much more vacancies.

3rd place: PHP


This is a scripting programming language. It is used in the field of web development (backend). Most sites (up to 80%) use PHP to implement their functionality.

The language is good for developing templates and universal platforms, modules. Therefore, the most popular CMS (Joomla, WordPress) are based on it. Professional communities, libraries, training materials - all this is available in huge quantities, if we talk about PHP.

The syntax is not particularly complex. You can learn programming both at the educational institution and yourself. Fortunately, convenient, practical materials are more than enough for this.

Demand for PHP programmers in Russia is stable, work can be found both in the office and in freelance. In the first case, a salary of 60,000 per month is offered. Freelancers, as a rule, earn piecework, but also very worthy.

A bunch of PHP + freelance is chosen by many beginners. An important point: web development is unthinkable without mastering HTML and CSS. However, it does not represent labor to study these tools, it is even useful.

2nd place: Java


Object oriented language with strong typing. It can be used on any platform using a virtual Java machine. Universal enough. You can use it to write desktop programs, games, mobile applications.

There are many Java frameworks, but they are bulky and insufficiently productive, like the language itself. It is not suitable for cloud technology. At one time (in the late 90s) Java drove C++ out of the market, and now it itself has somewhat lost ground to its young ambitious brothers. However, it remains relevant, work is underway to increase productivity.

Language is easy to learn. Developments on it are very extensive. There are enough training materials.

Now Java is in demand among android developers to create business applications. There are many vacancies for programmers in Russia, not every competitor is so popular. Salary is one of the highest: from 95,000 rubles per month.

1st place: Javascript


The leader in our rating is a scripting language that supports both functional and object-oriented methods. It's hard to imagine a web interface that does without Javascript.

Frontend-specialists everywhere and regularly use the language and its libraries/frameworks. Among the latter, the most common are Angular, Ext, React, Vue, Ember, Socket. Initially, Javascript was just a bonus for HTML/CSS. Over time, it became a powerful web developer tool, spreading its reach to related areas.

Learning a language is considered uncomplicated, and the logic of work is understandable even for beginners. In the syntax, much has been borrowed from C. The most effective method of studying is online courses with practice.Really become a specialist in 6-12 months. Knowledge of HTML/CSS is also required.

According to NN, the largest number of vacancies are open for Javascript programmers in Russia. And both for full employment, and for freelance. The salary is very decent: from 70,000 rubles per month (full day). This situation is explained by the rapid development of Internet technologies and website building.

The choice is yours

What to choose is an individual question. The answer depends on personal abilities, preferences. The industry is also an important argument.


Most likely, a language combining relevance, simplicity and speed of development, accessibility of tools is most suitable. In fact, all participants in our TOP-5 meet these conditions. Direct acquaintance with candidates in practice, recommendations and personal examples will help to make the best choice.

And you can learn all these languages ​​in our six-month course "Profession: Programmer" Learn more!