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163 pages of a mixture of answers to questions from real interviews, translation of interesting content from foreign resources and aggregation of material from domestic ones.

First of all, I want to emphasize that this material from Jun - Junam, from intermediate - is the same and is currently offered by AS IS, because tore off all the previously anticipated dates, so I apologize if I cause bleeding from the eyes of experienced colleagues. The quality of the material will improve as the community progresses and contributes. Also new material will be added as it becomes available.

There is a lot of translation from foreign sources and due to weak English and lack of commercial experience there may be outright heresy. In some places there is a vinaigrette of Russian and English terms. Initially, the material was made for myself, but it turned out to be preliminary in demand, so I brought it into a more or less proper form, but that's all.

As for sources and resources, the list is not complete. In the original synopsis, I did not save links, so if you see the author's content, please do not swear. I did not try to make the list of useful resources comprehensive, but only indicated those that were useful to me personally.
I also note that the material itself is far from comprehensive. It is assumed that this is a kind of hybrid of answers to questions and basic theory, and here the topics are disclosed to the extent that is required in the interview. That is, there is a reference point and some kind of base, but if necessary, you dig further yourself. Each term, each topic appears to me as a three-dimensional object and it is not always possible to achieve understanding by looking straight ahead (one source). Sometimes you need to look from different angles (from different sources). In addition, as I said, this digging can be continued indefinitely and it would be the format of a thick book, not an article.

In addition to depth, material is also limited in width. Mobile testing is practically not disclosed, mainly web. This is due to questions from the interviews themselves, as they say, for what I bought, for what I sell. Testing in different areas is added just to guide the beginner.

This article is not a substitute for a good book or course, on the other hand, there is more reality here.

WARNING! In order to see the entire material, you need to open the first or second part in the files on the github ( Manual part 1 or Manual part 2 ).

It turned out that such a volume is practically unrealistic to provide the public. Unfortunately, Habr is not yet able to parse sources larger than 150kb, which would mean splitting the material into 8 articles (the developers promised to fix it, the task is already active).

On the gita, I had to additionally divide the material into 2 files due to the limitation on the size of one in 1 MB.If you have something to fix or add - write here/create an issue/fork and commit! I call on all those who are not indifferent to participate!

Table of Contents


Manual part 1


  • HR-part
  • Real-life interview questions from the HR phase
  • General about testing
  • What does software testing mean?
  • Why is software testing required?
  • What does Quality Assurance (QA) mean in software testing?
  • What does Quality Control (QC) mean in software testing?
  • What does software quality mean? (Software Quality)
  • Explain the differences in QA, QC and testing
  • What does Verification mean in software testing?
  • What does Validation mean in software testing?
  • Difference between Design Verification and Design Validation?
  • Testing principles?
  • What is Test Coverage? (Test Coverage)
  • What is Test Maturity Model (TMM)?
  • What is CMM?
  • What is left shift testing? (Shift left testing)
  • What is independent testing? (Independent testing)
  • What is the difference between proactive and reactive approaches to testing? (Preventative and Reactive approaches)
  • What are the typical possible responsibilities of a quality assurance engineer?
  • What is a quality audit?
  • Why is testing divided into separate stages?
  • Why can't I fully test the software?
  • How do you test the product if the requirements are not yet fixed?
  • How do you know if enough tests have been created to test the product?
  • How do you understand the inspection?
  • What are the roles/positions in the team?
  • Describe the product lifecycle in stages - what are the participants at each stage, what are their roles? What are the artifacts at each stage?
  • Who is SDET?
  • What is Testing as a Service? (TaaS - testing as a Service)
  • What is meant by a test environment? (Test Environment/Test Bed)
  • What is meant by test data?
  • The main phases of testing?
  • Learn more about beta testing?
  • What does pilot testing mean? (Pilot)
  • What is the difference between build and release?
  • What is business logic (domain)?
  • You are the only tester on the project.What to do?
  • Basic tester tools?
  • Test types
  • What are the main types of software testing?
  • Test types? (White/Black/Gray Box)
  • What does black box testing mean?
  • What does white box testing mean?
  • What does gray box testing mean? (Gray box)
  • What are the main differences between White/gray/black box?
  • What is destructive/destructive/negative testing? (DT - Destructive testing)
  • What is non-destructive/non-destructive/positive testing? (NDT - Non Destructive testing)
  • What is a pyramid/test levels? (Testing Levels)
  • What is meant by component/unit/unit testing? (Component/Module/Unit testing)
  • What is integration testing? (Integration testing)
  • Difference between Unit testing and Integration testing?
  • What is system integration testing? (SIT - System Integration testing)
  • What is meant by an incremental approach? (Incremental Approach)
  • What is meant by a bottom-up approach? (Bottom-Up Approach)
  • What is meant by a top-down approach? (Top-Down Approach)
  • What is meant by a hybrid/sandwich approach? (Sandwich Approach)
  • What is meant by the Big Bang approach? (Big Bang Approach)
  • What is the difference between a test driver and a test stub? (Test Driver and Test Stub)
  • What is meant by system testing?
  • Can we conduct system testing at any stage?
  • What is functional testing?
  • What is interoperability/interoperability testing? (Compatibility/Interoperability testing)
  • What is Compliance Testing? (Conformance/Compilance testing)
  • What is non-functional testing?
  • Key concepts in performance testing?
  • Testing client-side and server-side performance, what's the difference?
  • In general terms, what is performance testing?
  • What is capacity/ability testing? (Capacity)
  • What does scalability testing mean? (Scalability)
  • Difference between capacity/capacity testing and scalability testing? (Capacity vs Scalability)
  • Tell us about stress testing? (Stress testing)
  • Tell us about stress testing? (Load)
  • What is volume testing? (Volume testing)
  • Soak/Endurance/Stability/Reliability testing
  • What is spike/spike testing? (Spike)
  • What is sustainability testing? (Resilence)
  • What is response time testing? (Response time testing)
  • What is Ramp Testing?
  • What is storage testing? (Storage testing)
  • What is failover and recovery testing? (Failover and Recovery testing)
  • What do you know about Usability Testing? (Usability testing)
  • Differences between usability testing and accessibility testing? (Usability Vs.Accessibility testing)
  • What is interface testing? (UI testing)
  • What is workflow/workflow testing? (Workflow testing)
  • What do you know about user acceptance testing? (UAT - User Acceptance testing)
  • What is operational acceptance testing? (OAT - Operational Acceptance testing)
  • Tell us about installation testing?
  • What do you know about security testing? (Security and Access Control testing)
  • What does Vulnerability/Security Assessment mean? (Vulnerability Assessment)
  • Tell us more about penetration testing? (Penetration testing)
  • What is the difference between Vulnerability Assessment and Penetration testing?
  • What is Fuzz Testing?
  • Is security or load testing a functional type of testing?
  • What do you know about configuration testing? (Configuration testing)
  • What is meant by smoke testing/smoke testing? (Smoke testing)
  • What is shaking testing? (Shake out testing)
  • What is meant by sanitary testing/consistency/serviceability? (Sanity testing)
  • What is the difference between sanitary testing and smoke testing? (Sanity vs Smoke testing)
  • What do you know about regression testing? (Regression testing)
  • Explain what N + 1 testing is?
  • What does confirmatory testing mean? (confirmation/re-testing)
  • What is the difference between retesting and regression testing?
  • Kaner Regression Types?
  • What do you know about assembly testing? (Build Verification Test)
  • What is cookie testing?
  • What is thread testing? (Thread testing)
  • What is documentation testing? (Documentation testing)
  • What levels of data testing do you know?
  • What is a subcutaneous test? (Subcutaneous test)
  • Tell us about localization, globalization and internationalization? (Localization/globalization/internationalization testing)
  • What is exploratory testing? (Exploratory testing)
  • What is Free or Intuitive Testing? (Adhoc)
  • What do you know about mutation testing? (Mutation testing)
  • What does keyword testing engine mean? (Keyword Driven testing Framework)
  • What do you know about testing the Application Programming Interface (API)?
  • How to test the API without documentation/black box?
  • What is endpoint?
  • Frontend testing Vs.Backend testing?
  • What is meant by benchmarking? (Baseline testing)
  • What is the difference between Baseline and Benchmark testing?
  • What is Parallel/Multiuser Testing? (Concurrency/Multi-user testing)
  • What do you think is portability testing?
  • What is GUI testing/visual testing? (GUI - Graphical User Interface)
  • What is A/B testing?
  • What does end-to-end testing mean? (E2E - End – to – End)
  • What's the difference between E2E and system testing?
  • What is parallel testing? (Parallel testing)
  • Test design
  • Test design? (Test Design)
  • List well-known test design techniques?
  • What is static testing, when does it start and what does it cover?
  • What is dynamic testing, when does it start and what does it cover?
  • What types of Review do you know?
  • What do you know about Data Flow testing?
  • What do you know about Control Flow testing?
  • What is Loop coverage?
  • What is Race coverage?
  • Path testing and base path testing? (Path testing & amp; Basis Path testing)
  • What do you know about Statement coverage?
  • What do you know about Decision coverage?
  • What do you know about Branch coverage?
  • What do you know about Condition coverage?
  • What do you know about FSM coverage?
  • What is Function coverage?
  • What is Call coverage?
  • What does LCSAJ coverage mean?
  • Comparison of some metrics
  • What is Equivalence Partitioning?
  • What is Boundary Value Analysis?
  • What is Error Guessing?
  • What is Cause/Effect? ​​
  • What is Exhaustive testing?
  • What combinatorial test design techniques do you know?
  • What is Orthogonal Array Testing? (OAT - Orthogonal Array testing)
  • What is Domain analysis/testing?
  • What is Cyclomatic Complexity in software testing?
  • What is State Transition testing?
  • What is Scenario (use case) testing?
  • What is Decision Table testing?
  • What is Random testing?
  • What is Syntax testing?
  • What do you know about the Classification tree method?
  • How do we know the code meets specifications?
  • What does the requirements tracking matrix include? (RTM - Requirement Traceability Matrix)
  • What is the difference between Test matrix and Traceability matrix?
  • What is GAP analysis?
  • What is a causal graph? (Cause Effect Graph)
  • What's the difference between predicting errors and seeding? (Error guessing and error seeding)
  • Test styles?
  • Requirements testing techniques?
  • What are heuristics?
  • Test artifacts and documentation (Test Deliverables/TestWare/test artifacts)
  • Types of test documentation?
  • Differences between Test Suite and Test Scenario?
  • What are the differences between a test plan and a testing strategy?
  • Types of test plans?
  • What is the basis for preparing an acceptance plan? (PAP - Product Acceptance Plan)
  • What is the difference between a test case and a checklist?
  • What is the difference between high-level and low-level test cases?
  • How does a Test case differ from a test scenario?
  • What is Test Analysis/Test Basis? (Test Analysis/Test Basis)
  • What is a Business Requirements Document (BRD)?
  • What do you know about the requirements (levels/types, etc.))?
  • Plant, what are the requirements for the requirements themselves?

Manual part 2


  • Defects and Errors
  • What is a defect? ​​
  • Defect classes?
  • What are the categories of defects?
  • Error/Mistake/Defect/Bug/Failure/Fault?
  • What is the content of an effective error message?
  • A few key points to consider when writing a bug report?
  • Severity & amp; Priority
  • Could there be high severity and low priority? And vice versa?
  • Life cycle of a defect? ​​
  • A bug came from production, what are we doing?
  • What is a bug leak and bug release? (Bug Leackage & amp; Bug Release)
  • What does defect density mean when testing software?
  • What is the percentage of defect detection during software testing?
  • What does the effectiveness of troubleshooting in testing software mean? (DRP)
  • What is the meaning of Test case in software testing? (TCE)
  • Age of defect in software testing?
  • What is the Pareto principle in software testing?
  • What are the different ways to apply the Pareto principle in software testing?
  • What is the main difference between debugging and testing? (Debugging Vs.Testing)
  • Why are there errors in the software?
  • What will you do if an error occurs during testing?
  • How do you deal with an irreparable error?
  • If a product is in production and one of its modules is updated, is it necessary to conduct a second check?
  • What is risk analysis?
  • What is the difference between coupling and cohesion?
  • What is a hidden defect? (Latent defect)
  • What is error concealment, explain with an example?
  • Debug categories? (Debugging)
  • What is Defect Removal Efficiency? (DRE - Defect Removal Efficiency)
  • What is defect sorting? (Bug triage)
  • SDLC and STLC
  • What do you know about the software development life cycle? (SDLC - Software Development Lifecycle)
  • What is a Deming cycle/wheel? (Deming circle/cycle/wheel)
  • Software Development Models?
  • What is Agile?
  • What is Scrum?
  • What is the difference between Canban and scrum?
  • What do you know about User stories in agile development approaches?
  • What does the software testing life cycle mean? (STLC - Software Testing Lifecycle)
  • What do you know about test assessment techniques? (Test Estimation)
  • What is the difference between SDLC and STLC?
  • What is rapid application development? (RAD - Rapid Application Development)
  • What is Test Driven Development (TDD)?
  • TDD in Agile Model Driven Development (AMDD)
  • Model-Based Testing (MDD - Model-driven Development)
  • Data Driven Testing
  • Risk Based Testing (RBT)
  • What do you know about streaming testing? (BFT - BusinessFlowTesting)
  • Testing in different areas/areas (testing different domains)
  • What is web testing and how to do it?
  • Testing banking software
  • E-Commerce Testing (eCommerce)
  • Testing a Payment Gateway
  • Testing retail systems (POS - Point Of Sale)
  • Insurance Testing
  • Testing in the field of telecommunications (Telecom)
  • Testing the protocol: L2 and L3 OSI
  • Testing the Internet of Things (IoT - Internet of Things)
  • What is cloud testing? (Cloud testing)
  • What is service oriented architecture testing? (SOA - Service Oriented Architecture)
  • What is enterprise resource planning testing? (ERP - Enterprise Resource Planning)
  • Testing the video quality of WebRTC-based video conferencing service
  • What is ETL testing?
  • Mobile Testing
  • What are the features in testing mobile applications? What are the differences between testing a mobile application from a desktop?
  • What are the differences between testing a mobile application from the web?
  • What do you know about simulators and emulators?
  • Types of mobile apps?
  • What is the main thing to check when testing a mobile application?
  • Last Android/iOS update, what's new?
  • The main differences between iOS and Android?
  • Types of gestures, etc.?
  • How to check processor usage on mobile devices?
  • Explain the critical errors you encounter when testing on mobile devices or in applications?
  • Networks and around them
  • What is http?
  • HTTP Components?
  • HTTP request methods?
  • What is a resource?
  • What is a web service? (WS - Web service)
  • Difference of service from server?
  • The difference between a service and a website?
  • What is REST, SOAP? What are the differences?
  • What is JSON, XML?
  • Server response/status codes with examples? (HTTP status code)
  • Why is the 404 error related to 4 ** - client, if in theory it should be 5 **?
  • What other protocols are there?
  • TCP/IP is it?
  • What are cookies?
  • Difference between cookie and session/session?
  • The difference between stateless and stateful?
  • Differences between the GET and POST methods?
  • Client - server architecture?
  • OSI layers?
  • What do you mean by streaming media? (Streaming media)
  • Basic Linux Commands?
  • Why is it important to test in different browsers?
  • Responsive Web Design vs. Responsive web design, what's the difference? (Adaptive Vs. Responsive)
  • How does the server know from what type of device/browser/OS/language you open the website? (For example, for adaptive design)
  • What is the difference between authorization and authentication?
  • How does authorization/authentication work? How does the site understand that you are logged in?
  • Why is it important to make an e-mail confirmation at registration?
  • What is a cache and why should it be cleared during testing?
  • What is AJAX on the web?
  • How does the browser work (briefly)?
  • How does cellular communications work?
  • How does Wi-Fi connectivity work?
  • Databases
  • Can the software have several databases at once?
  • What is SQL?
  • What do you know about NoSQL?
  • What are normal forms?
  • The concept of a stored procedure?
  • The concept of a trigger?
  • What are indexes? (Indexes)
  • What steps does the tester perform when testing stored procedures?
  • How would you know to test the database whether the trigger worked or not?
  • How to test data loading while testing a database?
  • Basic SQL Commands?
  • More about joins? (Join)
  • Data types in SQL?
  • PRACTICE
  • A registration form has been given. Test it.
  • Determining severity and priority
  • Definition of boundary values ​​and equivalence classes
  • Logic Tasks
  • More examples
  • A set of small SQL tasks
  • Testing a cup of coffee
  • HR: How will you resolve conflicts between your team members?
  • HR: What if the developer claims that the defect found is not such?
  • Here you have a computer and a working site. Make me the 401st mistake.
  • Where to start an absolute beginner?
  • Way
  • CV
  • Interview
  • Errors in the work of beginner testers
  • Useful
  • Youtube channels
  • Telegram
  • Web
  • Books
  • Courses
  • Sources
.

Source